What are the types of Automated Valuation Models?

July 21, 2023 | AVM | No Comments

Before the invention of Automated Valuation Models (AVMs), property evaluation relied primarily on manual methods. Appraisers, trained professionals with expertise in real estate valuation, would physically visit properties, assess their condition, analyze comparable sales data, and consider market trends to determine property values. This process was time-consuming, labor-intensive, and subject to human biases and inconsistencies.

However, with the advent of AVMs, property evaluation has become more efficient and automated. AVMs leverage advanced algorithms and large databases of property information to generate valuations quickly and objectively. They have revolutionized the industry by providing a faster and cost-effective alternative to traditional appraisal methods, enabling stakeholders to make informed decisions based on reliable estimates of property values.

What is an Automated Valuation Model (AVM)?

An AVM, or Automated Valuation Model, is a computer-based system that uses mathematical algorithms and statistical modeling to estimate the value of a property. It is a technology-driven solution that provides an automated approach to property valuation.

How do Automated Valuation Model (AVM) work?

AVMs utilize large databases of real estate information, such as property records, sales data, market trends, and comparable property data. These models analyze the available data, apply complex algorithms, and generate an estimated value for a specific property.

The input data for an AVM can vary depending on the system and the available information. It typically includes factors such as the property’s location, size, condition, historical sales data, and market trends. Some AVMs may also incorporate additional data sources, such as aerial imagery or demographic information, to improve accuracy.

What are the benefits of using AVMs?

Using AVMs (Automated Valuation Models) offers several benefits in the field of property valuation:

  1. Speed and Efficiency: AVMs provide a rapid and automated process for property valuation. They can generate valuation reports within minutes, saving time compared to traditional appraisal methods that require scheduling appointments and conducting on-site inspections.
  2. Cost-Effectiveness: AVMs can significantly reduce costs associated with property valuation. They eliminate the need for hiring and paying appraisers, conducting physical inspections, and incurring related expenses. This makes AVMs attractive for lenders, mortgage companies, and real estate professionals looking to streamline their operations.
  3. Objective and Consistent: AVMs employ mathematical algorithms and statistical models, resulting in objective valuations. They are not influenced by personal biases or subjective judgments, providing consistent estimates across different properties.
  4. Wide Data Coverage: AVMs have access to vast databases of real estate information, including property records, sales data, and market trends. This comprehensive data coverage allows AVMs to consider various factors and provide a more holistic view of property values.
  5. Scalability: AVMs can handle large volumes of property valuations simultaneously. This scalability makes them ideal for analyzing extensive portfolios, conducting market research, or assessing properties in high-demand regions.
  6. Quick Market Updates: AVMs can swiftly incorporate new sales data and market trends, ensuring that valuations stay up to date in rapidly changing markets. This real-time information is valuable for decision-making and risk assessment.

What are the types of AVMs?

The choice of AVM type depends on the available data, market conditions, and specific valuation requirements. Different AVMs may be more suitable for various property types, regions, or purposes, and the accuracy of the valuation may vary depending on the chosen AVM approach. There are several types of AVMs, each employing different methodologies and data sources.

Hedonic AVMs
• Price Index AVMs
• Tax assessors AVMs
• Comparative AVMs
• Hybrid AVMs

What are Hedonic models?

Hedonic models, also known as hedonic regression models, are statistical models used in real estate valuation to analyze the relationship between the characteristics of a property and its market value. These models assume a property’s value is derived from its various attributes or characteristics.

In a hedonic model, the value of a property is expressed as a function of its observable attributes, such as location, size, number of bedrooms and bathrooms, amenities, condition, and other relevant factors. The model quantifies each attribute’s contribution to the property’s overall value.

The key concept behind hedonic models is that buyers and sellers in the real estate market consider the different attributes of a property and are willing to pay more or less based on their preferences and perceived value. By analyzing a large property sales dataset, the hedonic model estimates the value of each attribute and how it influences the overall market value.

Hedonic models are typically developed using regression analysis, where historical sales data is used to identify the relationships between property attributes and sale prices. The model estimates the impact of each attribute by calculating coefficients that represent the marginal contribution of that attribute to the property’s value.

These models are widely used in Automated Valuation Models (AVMs) to estimate property values. By incorporating a range of attributes and their corresponding values, hedonic models provide a more comprehensive and detailed approach to property valuation, accounting for the factors that buyers and sellers consider when determining the value of a property.


• Can be very accurate in predicting property values.

• Can be used to analyze a wide variety of property characteristics.


• Can be complex and time-consuming to develop.

• Requires a large amount of data.

What are Tax assessor models?

Tax assessor models, also known as assessment models or mass appraisal models, are statistical models used by tax assessors or government agencies to determine property values for the purpose of property taxation. These models aim to estimate the fair market value of properties within a specific jurisdiction.

Tax assessor models differ from traditional appraisal methods, focusing on assessing many properties simultaneously rather than conducting individual appraisals for each property. They are designed to handle the assessment process efficiently and consistently across various properties.

These models typically use a combination of statistical techniques, property data, and market information to estimate property values. The data used in tax assessor models can include property characteristics, such as size, location, construction type, number of rooms, and other relevant factors. They also incorporate sales data and valuation ratios to establish a baseline for property values.


• Simple and easy to use.

• Based on historical data, so can be relatively accurate.


• May not be as accurate as hedonic models.

• May not take into account recent market trends.

What are Price index models?

Price index models, also called index-based models, are statistical models used to estimate property values based on changes in price indices. These models rely on the relationship between property prices and general market trends captured by various price indices.

Price index models assume that property values are influenced by broader market movements rather than individual property characteristics. These models track changes in price indices over time and apply these trends to estimate the current value of a property.

The key component of price index models is the selection of an appropriate price index. Commonly used indices include housing price indices, consumer price indices, or regional-specific indices that capture local market trends. These indices serve as benchmarks for property value fluctuations.

To estimate the value of a specific property using a price index model, the model analyzes historical data on the relationship between the chosen price index and property prices. By identifying patterns and correlations, the model determines how price index changes correspond to property value changes.

Once the relationship between the price index and property values is established, the model applies the latest available price index data to estimate the property’s current value. The estimated value is derived by multiplying the property’s previous value by the percentage change indicated by the price index.


• Simple and easy to use.

• Based on recent sales data, so can be relatively accurate.


• May not be as accurate as hedonic models.

• May not take into account all property characteristics.

In conclusion, Automated Valuation Models (AVMs) have become a valuable tool for real estate professionals, offering numerous benefits in property valuation. AVMs provide speed, efficiency, and cost-effectiveness by automating the valuation process, saving time and resources. They offer objective and consistent estimates, leveraging advanced algorithms and large databases of property information.

It’s important to note that there are different types of AVMs, each with its own advantages and disadvantages. Hedonic models offer great value-prediction accuracy and can analyze a wide variety of property characteristics. In contrast, price index models rely on price indices to estimate property values and are simple to use. In addition to, models like tax assessor models with their simplicity in use and accuracy when it depends on historical data.

Choosing the best type of AVM for a particular situation depends on the user’s specific needs. Factors such as property type, location, market conditions, and valuation requirements should be considered. A thorough understanding of the strengths and limitations of each AVM type is crucial in making an informed decision.

Ultimately, AVMs are a starting point for property valuation, providing a convenient and efficient tool. However, when a more accurate and comprehensive assessment is required, human expertise and judgment are often necessary to supplement AVMs. By combining AVMs’ strengths with real estate professionals’ insights, the valuation process can be optimized for reliable and informed decision-making in the dynamic real estate industry.


About Author

about author


Estater is a unique real estater advisory company operating in Kuwait and Bahrain. We provide comprehensive real-estate
data and market intelligence with granular details to help developers.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *